@facw My friend, congestion charges are a regressive tax that have shockingly little effect on environmental impact (in studies funded by people who were asked to quantify how much by advocates for congestion charges, it was as much as 12%... for that small area — a drop in the proverbial bucket). To anyone with half a brain, they're about as palatable as poop on a stick.
As for busses being more efficient, well, yes - in terms of energy. Certainly a net-loss in terms of time. Mass transit is also, quite frankly, gross. I found it really funny what lengths people took to make sure no one published good data on how much worse spreading COVID on mass transit was vs private transportation.
We need more carrots not sticks. If you want to build a 15-minute city, great. Come up with a transit system that is 1) clean 2) a delight to use and 3) more efficient than a car in both time and energy. Thing is though, most urbanists and city planners don't know their ass from their elbow. They think you can take a system like a bus or a train and force people into using them. They don't think broadly about the problem or consider user experience. This is the same group of people, decades removed, who gave us very efficient housing systems: the projects. They didn't get it then and they don't get it now. Your 85 year old grandmother is not going to take a bike to the pharmacy.